world poised at crossroads on energy, with directions leading to sustainable future or abyss, says secretary-general, as general assembly holds thematic dialogue

by:Merttace     2020-04-12
Thematic dialogue on energy issues (AM & PM)
The world is at the crossroads of energy, moving towards a sustainable future or abyss.
The president of the General Assembly said that the outlook for renewable energy would \"never be better \";
Panel: The current situation of energy efficiency and renewable energy;
The investment to meet the challenges \"we stand at the Crossroads\", One Direction leads to the abyss, and the other direction leads to a more sustainable abyss, the UN secretary-general said, if countries make more effective use of energy and use the untapped potential of renewable energy, the world will prosper and stabilize. General Ban Ki-
Moon announced today that he started an interactive thematic dialogue on energy. The day-
The long-standing event entitled \"energy efficiency, energy conservation and new and renewable sources of energy\" brought together delegates from governments, United Nations agencies and the private sector to explore ways to conserve energy and to develop and transfer relevant technologies.
In the opening speech,
Ban stressed that much can be done by improving energy efficiency.
Some of the biggest advances have been made in the industrial and transport sectors, and construction and housing offer considerable opportunities.
Educated and informed consumers can also play an important role in reducing demand by choosing how they commute, the cars they buy and the appliances they use.
He said, however, that these ideas require strong government policies that effectively set standards and encourage private actors to invest in efficiency and change incentive structures so that electricity companies can profit from protection.
It must be understood that energy efficiency and renewable energy options are tools to promote clean development and can be reduced
Link economic growth with increased greenhouse gas emissions.
For their part, governments can make better use of the Clean Development Mechanism, which allows industrialized countries to invest in projects in developing countries rather than carry out expensive emissions reductions at home.
Until recently, most of these funds have supported large funds --
Rapid development of national scale projects.
\"The transformation of the global energy market is underway . \"
BAN KI-MOON stressed that 2008 was the first year of investing in new energy, which highlighted
The power generation capacity of renewable energy technology has surpassed that of fossil energy. fuel power.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy provided an opportunity to address many challenges-including climate change and poverty-at the same time, and he urged participants to recognize this enormous potential.
Miguel descoto Brockmann, president of the General Assembly, while agreeing that the outlook for renewable energy \"never looked better\", noted that too much energy was used in the industrialized North, while most other regions lack enough energy to get rid of poverty.
\"The facts are obvious,\" he said . \" World energy consumption is expected to grow by 40 by 2030.
Experts believe that a technological revolution is needed to align growing energy demand with measures to mitigate climate change and the overall carrying capacity of the planet.
He said that when formulating policies, it is necessary to understand the various costs of developing new and renewable sources of energy.
Initial research and development costs may be a disadvantage, and public investment funds and official development assistance are key.
He urged funding for technology and assured that the initial higher costs would be offset by contaminated supplies
Free energy later.
When governments gathered in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December to finalize a new climate change agreement, he wanted to show the world a new generation of fiscal incentives to reduce emissions and pursue renewable energy.
In the morning keynote speech, Li hoesung, deputy
The chair of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change spoke about this, saying that this stage is for the low
Carbon Transformation in energy systems.
In order to trigger change, governments must support technology research and development, and it is impossible to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations without technology research and development. A low-
The future of carbon depends on the decision to replace fossils today.
Fuel-based infrastructure
Provide carbon technology at competitive cost.
In addition, when the price of goods and services includes the social cost of carbon emissions, consumers react by using less carbon-emitting products and servicesintensive.
In the keynote speech of the afternoon, Vice President Mohammed Wahid Hassan
The president of the Maldives said the Maldives has decided that \"The time has come for global leadership\" and will become the world\'s first carbon neutral country by 2020.
Hundreds of wind turbines, photovoltaic solar panels in half a square kilometer, a biomass power plant and rear-
The battery bank will provide unlimited clean energy supply to the country.
The price of the project is high, but $100 million a year for 10 years.
But spending $0. 2 billion a year on importing fossil fuels can pay off in 20 years or less.
Two panel discussions were also held that day.
The first, entitled \"status and prospects: energy efficiency and new and renewable sources of energy\", addresses issues around the most promising renewable and energy-efficient technologies, constraints that hinder their wider deployment, strive to deploy leading technologies on a scale to meet sustainable development goals, which have the potential to improve energy supply.
The panel was chaired by Timothy E.
Presentation by United Nations Foundation President Wirth and director Kandeh Yumkella
Director-General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization;
Professor of Energy Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Nebojsa Nakicenovic, member of the executive committee on global energy assessment;
Joe Lauper, senior deputy
President of Energy Conservation Alliance policy and research;
Leena. Srivastava, Executive Director, TERI, India.
Sergio galliba, policy adviser to the Italian ministry of economic development.
The second panel, entitled \"meeting the challenge: investment and policy\", explores the types of policies and investments needed to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency, especially during the global financial crisis.
The questions focus on what policies can stimulate technological innovation and what actions can generate legal incentives to boost investment.
Presided over by the economist, Vijay Vaitheeswaran, Danish parliament member Steen Gade;
Santiago Secci, Chairman and CEO of Spain\'s abingoa solar energy company;
Saio multi-color stock line, director general
General manager of energy center;
The French Ministry of Energy, Sene Peros;
Irene flouden Shusi
Ambassador and director, Reichl
Austria foreign ministry development cooperation;
As well as Tariq banouri, director of the sustainable development division of the Secretariat of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Miguel d\'Escoto Brockmann, president of the General Assembly (Nicaragua)
It is only appropriate to say that the General Assembly takes advantage of a wide range of opportunities --
Broad and growing expertise in energy efficiency and energy conservation, as well as new and renewable sources of energy.
He said the challenges posed by climate change, the financial and economic crisis and the food crisis were \"integrated, interacted, driven and intensified \".
Energy is the \"cornerstone\" of economic development, he said, and the future survival of this species depends on the availability of energy from reliable, safe and eco-friendly sources.
At present, there is no single source of energy in the world, and there is not even a suitable energy mix to meet its needs, which makes it \"clearly on an unsustainable energy path \".
However, he expressed his belief that people around the world are becoming more aware of the problem and urgently demand fundamental changes in the way and source of energy use.
He said he believes the era of renewable energy has come.
\"The rapid growth in production during this period indicates that the outlook for renewable energy has never improved even in the face of a recession.
He raised the issue of unfair energy models, with the use of \"too much energy\" in industrialized North, while most people in the world did not get enough energy to lift them out of poverty.
\"The facts are clear,\" he said . \" He explained that world energy consumption is expected to increase by about 2030.
\"Experts believe that we need a technological revolution that coordinates development and our growing energy needs with steps to mitigate climate change and the overall carrying capacity of the planet.
What do we do?
He said that Belarusian Foreign Minister Sergei Martinov was supposed to be in the thematic debate and was one of the original advocates of such a meeting.
But he couldn\'t join them today. Mr.
De Escoto held a thematic debate at the request of 18 Member States concerned.
Drawing attention to price fluctuations in the energy market, he noted that lower energy prices often have a negative impact on investment decisions for renewable energy.
He said it is hard to imagine that policymakers will reverse this trend, especially in the absence of anti-corruption funds in most countries.
Cyclical measures.
\"Today we are bound by our technological foundations.
\"While technology is evolving, incentives are needed to speed up the process,\" he said . \" States and the public sector are urged to provide appropriate incentives to the private sector to support the goal of renewable energy.
\"When making policies, it is important that we be aware of the different costs involved in developing new and renewable sources of energy,\" he added . \" Every renewable energy source-solar, wind, and hydropower-has obvious advantages, he said.
However, the cost of initial R & D may be a disadvantage.
Public funding for investment and official development assistance is key, but it is not enough at present.
\"We must continue to fund these technologies and ensure that the initial higher costs will be offset by endless pollution --free energy.
\"He encouraged governments to study the different ways in which capital flows flow to renewable energy in developing countries, such as through the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.
\"When the world gathered in Copenhagen in December ,[…]
\"I hope we will have a new generation of financial incentives,\" he said . \" Refers to the Conference of the parties to the climate change convention scheduled for the end of this year.
He said incentives could be put in place to link capital flows in developed countries\' carbon markets to development projects in developing countries.
Praise Washington DC for its bold new vision\"C.
In terms of energy, the world needs commitment and leadership for major carbon emissions, he said.
The emitter pointed out the way forward.
The United Nations Secretary-General in his opening statement inGeneral BAN KI-
Moon Jae-in reminded delegates that governments will meet in Copenhagen in December to finalize a new climate change agreement that must be comprehensive, fair and ambitious.
Greenhouse gas emissions must be significantly reduced, and for this reason, the world must change the way energy is used.
\"We can achieve many goals by pursuing energy efficiency,\" he said . \".
Some of the biggest improvements can be found in the industrial and transport sectors, and buildings and residences offer considerable opportunities.
Educated and informed consumers can also play an important role in reducing demand by choosing how they commute, the cars they buy and the appliances they use.
But he said all these ideas require strong government policies.
Good policies can set efficiency standards for electrical appliances, vehicles and buildings, encourage private actors to invest in improving efficiency and change the incentive structure of power companies to ensure that they benefit from protection.
He said that strong policies can also promote the development of renewable energy by allowing citizens and industries to generate electricity and access it to the state grid, these policies should be highlighted in the discussions ahead of Copenhagen.
It is also important to understand that pursuing energy efficiency and expanding renewable energy is not an indulgence for rich countries.
\"They are tools for all,\" he said . \"
\"They are a tool for cleaner development\" that can help countries
Link economic growth with increased greenhouse gas emissions.
Renewable clean energy from the sun, wind, geothermal or biomass provides a step toward the \"ladder of prosperity\" for communities around the world.
They must be provided more broadly.
However, access to funds is an obstacle for villagers and large enterprises.
Renewable energy usually requires a lot of capital expenditure, but the cost will be low once it is put into use. Unlike coal-
No fuel is needed for power plants, wind farms and solar installations.
He said the government must do its part by using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
More effective.
Until recently, most CDM funds have supported
In fast-growing countries-Brazil, China, India and Mexico-large-scale projects have been carried out, while smaller projects have been missed in poor countries, especially in Africa.
Governments need to improve their capacity to prepare successful CDM proposals, a problem that the United Nations is working to address.
More projects are being approved today across Africa and elsewhere.
Speaking about climate change, he said that while climate change is one of the biggest threats in the world, it also provides opportunities for the world.
The transition to a green economy is not easy, it requires a lot of initial investment, but in the long run, it will pay off by creating jobs, developing rural areas and fighting deforestation.
In addition, renewable energy is one of the few industries that have fought the global recession to some extent, and 2008 marks the first year that renewable technology has invested more in new energy power generation capacity than fossil energy.
Fuel technology.
\"The global energy market is transforming,\" he said . \"
To highlight this, he said that Iceland was fully dependent on oil in the late 1970 s and early 1980 s and that almost all of the energy available today comes from geothermal and hydropower.
The Rift Valley in Africa is a hotbed of geothermal potential, and Kenya is developing it.
Other countries have great potential in solar and wind energy, including oil.
Exporting Countries and the United Nations are helping to map the best locations.
\"We are at the crossroads,\" he said, One Direction leads to the abyss and the other to a more sustainable, prosperous and stable world.
The choice should be clear.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy provided an opportunity to meet many challenges-climate change, energy insecurity and poverty reduction-at the same time, and he urged participants to recognize this enormous potential.
\"Sustainable development is what we can do,\" he said . \"
Keynote address by Deputy Secretary-General LEE hoesung LEE
The chair of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change said that, regardless of the results of December, energy efficiency and renewable energy would be the main tool for determining the level and speed of greenhouse gas drainage reduction in the future.
\"We need to start from the perspective of energy efficiency and renewable energy,\" he said . \".
Over the past 30 years, global carbon dioxide (CO2)
Emissions rose by 1.
9% per cent of GDP per capita (GDP)
Increased by 1.
8% and Population 1. 6per cent.
Energy and Carbon intensity declined over the same period.
In that regard, he noted that the impact of gross domestic product and population growth far outweighed that of improving energy efficiency and replacing fuel.
However, although there has been no clear policy intervention to encourage this in the last 30 years, both energy and carbon intensity have declined.
He said that only in a world where income and population growth are overshadowed by a common decline in carbon and energy intensity can global greenhouse gas reductions be possible.
This indicates the rapid improvement of energy efficiency and the early scrapping of fossil fuel resources.
As the contribution to energy efficiency is not sufficient to cope with climate change, renewable energy needs to bear the growing burden of climate stability.
The stage is set to low
The carbon transformation of the energy system, but what is causing this change?
First, greenhouse gas emitters must pay for their emissions, and the government must support technology research and development, he said.
Without research and development, it is economically impossible to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations.
In other words, a low
Today\'s decision to replace fossils will determine the future of carbon.
Fuel-based infrastructure
Carbon Technology offered at competitive costs-this is not the case at the moment.
He explained that there are four types of renewable energy technologies: mature markets with mature technologies (hydro projects);
Mature technology and immature market (biodiesel);
Under the demonstration of technological development, limited commercial applications (wave power);
Stage of technical research (
Organic and Inorganic nanotechnology and solar cells).
He said government support for R & D has remained unchanged over the past 15 years.
Induced Technological change-the main outcome of R & D-can significantly reduce the cost gap between conventional and low fuels
Carbon alternatives.
International cooperation in research and development is an excellent measure to achieve economies of scale, financing leverage and effective technology transfer and deployment, such as the International Partnership on hydrogen economy.
But if carbon is free, the partnership will do nothing, he said.
If carbon prices do not reflect the social costs of climate destruction, nothing will happen to reduce emissions.
Answering questions about greenhouse gas drainage reduction level and speed, time to reduce emissions and the distribution of these cuts in the country and industry is critical.
The social cost of carbon is estimated at $3 to $95 per ton of carbon dioxide, but this uncertainty cannot be an excuse for the world to implement carbon prices.
\"We need to start with a certain level of carbon price based on existing scientific information,\" he asserted . \".
When the price of goods and services includes the social cost of carbon emissions, consumers react by reducing the consumption of carbon emissions. intensive.
What followed was a change in lifestyle that sent a powerful signal to producers.
However, he added that it would take decades for the current fossil fuel infrastructure to be low
Carbon structure, because of the long service life of the infrastructure, has great resistance to the transition.
Carbon prices are an intermediary for a smooth transition.
He ended his comments with caution, saying that fluctuating prices created uncertainty and damaged investment in low prices
Carbon technology.
The carbon tax provides price certainty and is therefore better than the upper limitand-trade system.
Such taxes are unpopular, but energy subsidies cannot replace carbon taxes.
Whether the recipient is fossil fuel or alternative energy, energy subsidies are a bad policy.
Finally, he said a lot of costs.
Effective opportunities for reduction exist, but users often fail to adopt them due to lack of information and inconsistent incentives.
Regulations and standards can fill this gap.
\"No one --size-fits-
All, one way low
\"Carbon is sustainable,\" he said.
Different countries, but carbon pricing, energy efficiency and research and development of renewable technologies are common criteria for different paths towards a sustainable future.
He urged participants to use their diversity to learn from each other.
Prior to the afternoon panel discussion, Mr. President of the General Assembly
De Escoto introduced Mohammed Wahid Hassan, the second keynote speaker.
Maldives president says finding ways to achieve sustainable development through non-sustainable development
Pollution of energy is a moral obligation and it is also a moral obligation to protect people living in small island states and other less developed countries. Mr.
Hassan said his country \"lives in borrowed time,\" with an average height of only 1 for 2,000 tropical islands.
At an altitude of 5 m, the average area is about half a square kilometer.
The height and area of these islands make them very vulnerable to the increasing acidity caused by sea level rise and climate change.
He said the country is determined to adapt to these changes and strengthen maritime defense on the most populous islands.
It built a wall of the sea around men in the capital, where the third population lives.
The wall protected the city from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
He said it is estimated that a third of all inhabited islands is facing severe coastal erosion and protection measures are needed.
But for a poor country, difficult engineering solutions are not cheap.
The xionghai Wall, which costs $60 million, is a huge expense for a country with a gross domestic product of less than $1.
It is difficult to protect every inhabited island, and the government encourages people to move to a larger, safer island, although many are reluctant to move from where their ancestors lived for centuries and were buried.
The dangers highlight the importance of reducing greenhouse gases and taking a sustainable development path in the Maldives, he said.
However, although the Maldives has not played an important role in contributing to climate change, it is determined to play a role in the solution.
During the march, the president announced that it would become the first carbon emitter.
Neutral country 10 years later
Since this announcement, it has received two reactions: a desire for help or doubt.
The calculation shows that there are 155 wind turbines per unit.
5 MW, plus photovoltaic solar panels and biomass plants in half square kilometers
Up battery bank will provide unlimited supply of clean energy, he said.
For 10 years, they have priced up to $100 million a year.
However, it costs $0. 2 billion a year to import fossil fuels, and oil prices in 20 or 11 years can return to $1 a barrel.
When asked why a country with so few greenhouse gas emissions would bother to achieve carbon neutral, he said the country\'s answer was \"the era of global leadership has arrived \".
For a long time, it has been vigorously advocating to alleviate the plight of low-income groups.
Vulnerable countries will now shift the debate from discussing issues to discussing solutions.
Since the announcement of the intention to achieve carbon neutral, dozens of overseas companies have been in contact with the country, eager to establish renewable energy projects in the country.
Development partners including the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC)
The EU and the United Nations offered to cooperate with the country.
He added that the private sector in Maldives has begun to develop environmental protection technologies, and this year a leading luxury resort has achieved carbon neutral.
Deep resort-
Cool air in seawater-
The organic waste is converted into \"bio-charcoal\", which is used again as a fertilizer.
Later this year, the resort will install a centralized solar power plant that will allow it to turn off diesel generators.
It built a windmill in India to offset the pollution caused by tourists flying. That a seven-
Star-rated resorts can achieve carbon neutral, which shows that sustainable development, good economy and quality of life are perfectly matched.
With the improvement of ecological environment, carbon neutral will promote the development of tourism industry.
Conscious Tourists seek \"climate guilt\"
It\'s a free destination, he said.
The economy will also be more stable because it is decoupled from unpredictable foreign oil prices, relying instead on the sun, the ocean and the wind.
In addition to addressing the challenges of energy security and climate change, new and renewable sources of energy can play a key role in economic and social development, he said. The long-
The long-term vision of the Maldives is that reducing dependence on fossil fuels can reduce environmental degradation, ensure economic growth for the people of the country and put the country on a sustainable development path.
Encouraged by the Secretary\'s initiative
He said he was looking forward to the support of the international community to make the goal of carbon and neutral a success by 2020.
Panel 1: current status and prospects of energy efficiency and new and renewable sources of energy
Wirth, president of the United Nations Foundation and the Better World Fund, chaired a panel discussion on energy efficiency and new and renewable sources of energy, including: Director Kandeh Yumkella
Director General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO);
Nebojsa Nakicenovic for global energy assessment;
Joe Lauper, senior deputy
President of Energy Conservation Alliance policy and research;
Leena. Srivastava, Executive Director, TERI, India.
There is also Sergio galliba, policy adviser to the Italian ministry of economic development. Mr.
Energy efficiency is \"the first fuel,\" said WIRTH \".
Its importance is reflected in the commitments made by many countries to achieve energy efficiency. for example, China said it would reduce energy intensity within five years;
India will meet the demand for renewable energy by 2012;
Since 2007, Brazil has met three quarters of energy demand for renewable energy;
By 2015, South Africa\'s demand will decrease from the expected level.
Achieving broad energy efficiency depends on whether countries can remove regulatory barriers and create appropriate financial incentives that may be incorporated into the future Copenhagen framework.
It also depends on whether the international community can determine the social costs of carbon, and on that basis, what can be called a fair and ambitious emission reduction framework for \"energy conservation.
Mr. first panel member
YUMKELLA referred to energy as the \"Missing Millennium Development Goals\" and said it was time for action.
Although living conditions around the world have improved over the past few decades.
6 billion people still do not have electricity, and 2 billion use biomass as fuel for cooking and heating.
In terms of climate change, if global action is to be effective, extensive cooperation on energy is necessary.
Since the growth in energy use in the coming decades may be mainly concentrated in developing countries, the expansion of \"energy supply\" and the elimination of \"energy poverty\" are the top priorities for these countries, efforts should be made by the international community to ensure political recognition.
From these countries.
It must pursue options for multiple benefits-reducing costs, improving working conditions and reducing environmental impact.
He said it is important to look at energy from a climate perspective, but it is not enough.
Responsible Energy use means the need for an energy technology revolution.
New technologies can
The carbon of the transport sector, among other things.
The success of these ideas depends on a supportive public policy environment, a clear understanding of the costs involved, and the attitude of \"technology learning.
He pointed out that United Nations Secretary-General
General decided to strengthen the organization\'s participation in energy issues by establishing a United Nations Energy Group of 20 agencies and programmes
Mr. Yumkella was taken.
Energy access will be led by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP (UNDP)
Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the World Bank;
On energy efficiency, UNIDO, the International Energy Agency (IEA);
Report of the United Nations Environment Programme on renewable energy (UNEP)
Organization for food and agriculture (FAO).
Work on normative issues will be carried out in cooperation with the International Standards Organization, the International Energy Agency and the Renewable Energy Action Project.
Other work will focus on technology transfer and financing, such as creating
Stop purchasing financial instruments already provided by the United Nations;
Coordination and expansion of existing infrastructure to build the capacity of developing countries;
Ensure the coherence of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change and link the Millennium Development Goals to energy access.
Just yesterday, Secretary.
The general called a high.
The energy advisory group reviewed the energy dimensions of climate change, poverty reduction and economic growth.
While the energy issue is widely regarded as the core of climate change negotiations, it has not yet been seen as the core of other major issues such as the food crisis, poverty reduction and national economic modernization.
It is time for the United Nations family to look more closely at the energy issue, which in itself is an issue rather than a vassal of other concerns. Mr.
NAKICENOVIC said that the global energy assessment has been working for two years to assess knowledge about energy issues, and one of its main findings is that the world needs a paradigm shift in energy.
A thorough improvement in the dissemination of existing technologies and new technologies is needed to improve efficiency or reduce the impact of carbon on the environment, such as through carbon capture technology.
These technologies need to be deployed globally with the support of governments.
He describes examples of various new technologies, such as photovoltaic cells used to capture solar energy, in one example the role of photovoltaic cells is to reduce costs by 30 while doubling power
Production capacity in areas where they are used.
By developing policies to encourage the widespread use of such technologies, countries can reduce energy costs in a sustainable manner.
The global energy assessment set a scenario for the IPCC to illustrate the consequences of various trades --
This shows that while using traditional fossil fuels, the level of investment required to reduce carbon emissions to an affordable level, the reduction in these emissions by shifting to renewable resources is the same-the investment has quadrupled compared to today\'s levels.
However, sticking to business as usual will cause the temperature to rise by 4.
Reaching 5 degrees by 2030 is unsustainable.
He said the International Energy Agency estimated that investment could drop by 38 per cent after the economic slowdown.
Therefore, green development strategies need to be directed towards renewable energy in order to avoid the consequences of insufficient investment.
Historically, the R & D spending of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has declined (OECD)
After the first energy crisis, the country has remained at $10 billion over the past decade.
That figure was supplemented by $40 billion in private investment.
These amounts are not commensurate with the current challenges facing the world. Mr.
LOPER outlined efforts to improve energy efficiency in the United States, calling energy efficiency \"here\" and \"available \".
The United States example shows that the potential for achieving existing energy efficiency technologies depends largely on the country\'s willingness to develop the right policies.
S. domestic policies on energy efficiency and climate change are \"going on in large quantities\" compared to the past, such as using compact fluorescent lamps, home insulation, wind and rain, turning off lights, the use of hybrid cars, \"right-sizing” (
People give up huge cars or houses in due course), and so on.
If the United States has not begun to take advantage of this progress in the past 35 years, the country may now consume another half of its energy.
About the energy saved comes from energy efficiency.
Economic growth is the biggest factor in determining energy consumption, so how much investment should be invested to achieve energy efficiency, he said.
Energy prices are also a factor.
Nevertheless, even if carbon pricing is \"correct\", there is still a lot of uncertainty about the cost of energy in the future, and therefore the cost of efficiency investment-which is called \"market barriers \".
In addition, tenants tend to pay energy bills while landlords make investments-mismatch between users and payers can affect the effectiveness of the policy and become another market barrier.
Technical lock-
In can sometimes become a market barrier;
For example, fluorescent bulbs are not suitable for lamps when first introduced.
Pricing policies, such as caps, he explainedand-
The trade policy now before Congress is designed to address these obstacles.
[The president is marching. Barack]
The reason Obama claimed he was interested in cap wasand-
Because he believes the market is doing better than the individual. Mr.
Loper said he agreed, but added that the market could not \"do it all \".
Market barriers need to be addressed by the right policies.
However, although the upper limitand-
The upcoming trade bill is \"quite radical\" and improving efficiency will help generate emissions reductions of about 1 out of 3 under the bill. Indeed, under-
Investment in energy efficiency will result in emission reduction costs being higher than guaranteed costs, so he is working to introduce energy efficiency schemes in the capand-trade regime.
In addition to determining the correct price of carbon, other important issues include efficiency criteria for subsidizing energy, buildings and equipment, and labeling-sometimes referred to as \"low\"
\"Hang fruit\" in driving sustainable energy use \". Ms.
SRIVASTAVA previewed the findings in the Asian Development Bank\'s report on energy use in AsiaPacific.
Per capita energy consumption in the region is low, so governments in these countries must ensure their energy security.
In poorer countries, a large proportion of the population does not have access to electricity and relies heavily on biomass.
Because of this, biomass requires considerable attention and a strategy to make better use of such resources.
The dependence on coal is also high.
Since a large portion of oil comes from the Middle East and West Asia, these countries are highly dependent on imports and are vulnerable to price confusion and volatility.
Moreover, the lack of modern fuel is one of the causes of poverty.
On the good side, there is a lot of renewable energy in the region, and biomass and solar energy have great potential, she said.
However, there are still some obstacles to the adoption and expansion of relevant technologies.
These include obstacles to financing and deployment;
High price of technology;
Market Barriers;
And policy barriers.
Banks in these countries are reluctant to fund renewable energy projects because it is believed that renewable energy is not commercially ready.
In turn, the financial needs of these countries are also very low.
Financial institutions are not able to make investment decisions due to lack of experience.
Determining the right energy pricing is one of the most important steps to improve energy efficiency and adopt energy technologies on a large scale, she said.
More realistic pricing of conventional energy is also important.
A proposal by the Asian Development Bank is to force the purchase of renewable energy and require countries to introduce energy-saving technologies.
Strengthening the legal framework and capacity
Construction in both areas is crucial.
The service provision and price monitoring of energy service companies need to be improved, and public awareness of energy-saving household equipment such as refrigerators and air conditioners needs to be improved.
The United Nations has a role to play in policy design, information sharing, helping to build frameworks to reduce transaction costs, ensure property rights, promote research and development finance, countries were educated on issues such as the economic and energy efficiency of renewable energy. Mr.
GARRIBBA said the EU has promised to reduce energy consumption by 2020, increase the contribution of renewable energy to primary energy supply and reduce carbon emissions on a 1990 basis.
This is the first regional group to do so.
Investment in these areas is highly counter-productive.
Recession effect;
The technology already has the potential to create jobs.
The rest of the world can make energy efficiency a priority.
For most countries, the cost of 1 KW hours is 5 to 10 times the cost of production. Low-
Emission technologies available for use, and technologies to create smart grid systems, sustainable transport systems, and clean coal
Power Station.
Have a low array
Alternative emission technologies and future options for carbon capture.
He said at a meeting in Rome
Energy ministers from 23 countries discussed what international cooperation is needed in the future.
It signed a new international initiative called the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency.
It is open to all countries and is the first component of major international cooperation on low exchange rates
Carbon Energy platform
It will be re-presented at the EU meeting in Italy on July.
The most important factor in the transition to the new energy model, he said, is the price of carbon, which contains all external costs.
There are different ways to internalize these external costs, such as setting up a carbon tax.
However, while economists may like the idea, how to determine the exact amount?
Who will decide the amount?
Should it change over time?
In addition, the method of determining the cost of carbon is opposed to the idea of letting the market decide the price. The cap-and-
The trading system is a way for markets to influence carbon prices, and if enough countries develop carbon markets, it could lead to international carbon markets.
Without the universal price of carbon, mechanisms such as the clean development mechanism would not work.
In order to help pay for technology and strengthen global cooperation, a universal carbon price is also needed.
It was proposed to allow countries to invest in research and development credit in the carbon market, but again, determining carbon prices is a prerequisite.
After discussion by the panelists, several delegates agreed on the importance of energy as the main item on the development agenda.
Many speakers stressed the need to facilitate access to new and renewable sources of energy for developing countries, such
The minister of energy and high-tech of Brazil\'s Ministry of External Relations said that developing countries need access to these types of technologies, which are necessary for their development.
He also said that developing countries should be provided with technologies that suit their needs and interests.
For example, flexible fuel vehicles designed for gasoline and ethanol blends reduce 35 tons of carbon in Brazil\'s atmosphere and are cheaper than expensive fuel/electric hybrids and more suitable for the Brazilian public.
The representative of Belarus said that when proposing to hold today\'s forum, the Belarusian government hopes that the dialogue will be part of a larger process in order to develop, prevent climate change and achieve other practical results, it will drive the spread of technology.
It would like to present these ideas in the autumn General Assembly resolution and make suggestions on mechanisms to ensure broad and equitable access to countriesof-the-
Art and Technology in the energy sector, and funding for technology transfer.
The UAE minister of foreign trade also made a statement.
Other speakers included the representative of the Czech Republic (
Statement on behalf of the European Union)
China, Bolivia, Venezuela, Singapore, Norway, Cuba and Iceland.
In response to the Speaker, Sir.
NAKICENOVIC said he found the idea of the international technology fund interesting because it was traditionally difficult to find such funds. Mr.
GARRIBBA said that he was shocked by the numerous calls to govern the new energy system through the United Nations, which may build on existing forms of cooperation, such as on low-carbon energy. Mr.
LOPER pointed out that countries that did not consume too much energy at first could not achieve much in terms of energy efficiency.
But they can go beyond the old technology by installing the most energy
From the beginning, there are efficient products in the market. Ms.
SRIVASTAVA said that energy security is the main goal of many countries and needs to be defined in a broader context.
Once, \"energy security\" usually referred to import dependence, but now it has begun to cover concepts such as energy access, because energy access has a human dimension.
In conducting research and development, it is important to highlight the unique challenges of developing countries and to expand solutions that are particularly suitable for them. Mr.
YUMKELLA says the energy market is mainly between governments.
For example, due to EU targets, the countries of the regional group have created the solar market by selling solar energy to Africa through submarine cables.
The green growth agenda must be inclusive and calls for smarter and broader cooperation in areas that all technologies must consider.
He hoped that the General Assembly would not regard this forum as one.
Because one of the keys to poverty eradication is helping developing countries transition to low-income countries
Carbon production system.
Panel 2: Meeting the Challenge: The second panel discussion on investment and policy \"meeting the challenge: investment and policy\" was chaired by economist reporter Vijay Vaitheeswaran.
It features a speech by Steen Gade, a member of the Danish Parliament;
Santiago Secci, Chairman and CEO of Spain\'s abingoa solar energy company;
Saio multi-color stock line, director general
General manager of energy center;
The French Ministry of Energy, Sene Peros;
Irene flouden Shusi
Ambassador and director, Reichl
Austria foreign ministry development cooperation;
Tariq Banuri, Director, Division for Sustainable Development, Secretariat of the Commission on Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs;
Verle Vandeweerd, director of the Energy and Environment Group of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Start this group, Sir.
VAITHEESWARAN said the reason the delegates are gathered today is to meet a huge challenge.
The world is at the crossroads of thinking about the future of energy, and the future faces enormous challenges: the current energy system is unsustainable, it is very important to review the links between energy and security, energy and the environment, energy and poverty. Some 1.
6 billion people do not have access to modern energy, and this number will only increase if the world adheres to the \"business as usual\" model. Mr.
GADE said that the University of Copenhagen organized an event three months ago, centered on the report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change released last year.
The conclusion that climate change is already close to the upper limit of the IPCC\'s forecast range reveals the fact that sea levels have risen by one metre this century.
There are challenges ahead, but they can be solved.
For example, 25 years ago, Denmark relied entirely on fossil fuels,
Today, it comes almost from renewable energy.
\"If you have a policy, change can be done,\" he said . \".
From 1980 to today, Denmark\'s economy has grown and its total energy consumption has only increased.
Describing Denmark\'s approach, he said that the government had forced energy companies to buy wind power at the lowest price under the law, which allowed the \"smart grid\" to develop.
It also involves local communities and scientific institutions that conduct wind mapping to reduce the risk of placing windmills in areas that are not feasible.
In addition, a high energy tax has been imposed on consumers, and while it sounds unpopular, it has helped modernize the industry.
As a result, there is no industry today-
Battle of the environment
He hoped to make access to electricity and renewable energy a priority on the international agenda. In the run-
Before the Copenhagen conference, there was not enough focus on these two areas-the goal of renewable energy was crucial.
He agreed to a proposal for a renewable energy fund.
As far as developed countries are concerned, they need to change the old
The way energy is produced.
Nuclear power is not modern, renewable energy is the future, and society must adapt.
Developing countries can also do their part, particularly by making their local power grids dependent on renewable energy. Mr.
He represents a new generation of companies that believe renewable energy, energy efficiency, and ensuring a sustainable future are key challenges for the century, Mr. Secchi said.
Clearly, there are several reasons why the world needs Sustainable Energy: energy independence, emissions and climate change.
The challenge is huge-traditional energy prices will double
Or triple in the next 10 years.
The price of traditional transportation and electricity will only rise.
The world needs more energy.
Describing the renewable energy group, he said that intermittent technology refers to technologies that are effective in the event of energy. e.
Wind and solar PV.
Wind Energy Technology develops rapidly at reasonable cost and is competitive in some cases.
Technologies that can produce clean energy when needed include biomass, geothermal and concentrated solar energy.
They are proven technologies.
In terms of cost, if carbon dioxide is taken into account, they will compete with fossil fuels in the next 5 to 10 years.
In that time frame, what looks expensive today looks reasonable.
As for what to do, he said, \"Obviously, technology is important \".
At present, there is not much investment in R & D of $10 billion.
To avoid seeing higher prices, something has to change fundamentally.
He advocates more investment in basic research and doing what the pharmaceutical industry has already done: creating research and development centers;
Ensure that the global network of scientists is committed to technology and that private entities work with public institutions.
But technology also needs to be tested, which in some cases costs hundreds of millions of dollars.
Pilot programs need public support.
Finally, the \"early technology\" developed after these pilots is often very expensive.
Only a few countries supported moving from the pilot phase to reality, which meant that promising ideas would not be brought to market.
The wrong answer, he says, is to wait until technology becomes cheaper.
If everyone thinks so, solar energy is still in the lab.
If countries wait for markets to decide which technologies will survive, then early technologies will never be a reality.
There is only one or two renewable technologies in the world that cannot survive.
It requires a combination that can be customized according to the resources of a country. Mr.
Mulin said Morocco had taken a proactive approach with high priority on energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Morocco decided to set up a $1 billion fund to support this political will.
Review secretary-
He said that Africa did not benefit from the clean development mechanism and he hoped to review the procedures of the mechanism in Copenhagen because Africa was suffering the greatest impact of climate change.
In terms of voluntary regulation, he said Morocco had decided to set up a new agency and facilitate carbon financing.
Moreover, it is difficult to develop if countries are not structurally connected.
Morocco is connected to Europe and to Alinga, which has two connecting lines.
Stressing the importance of the regional will to develop joint projects, he said that the desire to use renewable energy was related to a country\'s neighbors.
Morocco has been successful in establishing decentralized rural electricity, connecting 100 previously unconnected families.
Guarantee services are required in the most remote areas.
Local support services that require solar systems and job creation.
This is the approach taken by Morocco.
In terms of wind energy, there is still much work to be done in Morocco, but regulations related to the private sector electricity network have been put in place.
Private companies are investing in wind parks because of carbon financing.
He cited a solar project in the southern region and Morocco\'s participation in the Mediterranean solar program.
In conclusion, he said that renewable energy has promoted peace because countries must cooperate with their neighbors.
With the development of renewable energy in southern countries, there is no longer talk about terrorism, but about renewable energy. Join him, madam.
PELOSSE introduced the overall framework of the Mediterranean solar program, which was launched by the European Union in 2008 and confirmed by 43 heads of state.
While the financial crisis has had an impact on the plan, there has been an increase in renewable energy companies, particularly wind and solar.
One of the objectives of the plan is to establish a more balanced relationship between the north and the South, substantially reduce greenhouse gases, create a new industrial and market South, and develop a sustainable plan in the South, to meet the growing energy needs on the ground and contribute to the energy and climate package that will allow energy
Related exports to third countries.
Renewable energy costs are not at the level of \"grid parity,\" she said, a situation that requires funding to close the gap.
These include carbon funds, more balanced use of clean development mechanisms, preferential loans and co-
Financing projects with the South.
The World Bank can also help fund projects.
In addition, the development of renewable development guidelines in the European Union means that joint \"green\" projects can be carried out.
Public or private projects are eligible. Ms. FREUDENSCHUSS-
REICHL spoke about the leverage that development cooperation can provide in promoting energy for sustainable development.
During the period from 1990, the proportion of total ODA for energy and renewable energy was small.
This trend has improved in recent years and today there is an understanding in the development community that energy is important.
Development policies and cooperation contributed to the general consensus on the role of energy in development, which was confirmed in 2000 and reconfirmed at 2002 Johannesburg summit, an inter-agency Committee on Energy was subsequently established.
She said that in the European Union, as of 2005, energy was firmly embedded in the European Commission\'s programme portfolio, and the issue continued to develop.
Another important issue is advocating for the needs of poor countries in the debate on energy security and climate change.
Discussions at the highest level focused on the legitimate aspirations of developed countries to secure energy for their people.
Energy security is considered from the perspective of supply security.
There is not enough debate about the fact that energy security cannot be achieved in isolation.
She said that the challenge of providing energy for sustainable development was carried out in a way that would reduce poverty, address climate change and stabilize the climate system.
Development policies and cooperation support regional efforts to promote energy for sustainable development.
She said that, for example, Austria, Finland and the European Commission have launched a programme with Central America on energy and environmental issues to enable several countries to try pilot projects, experimental energy efficiency and investment in renewable energy.
The Lisbon Summit brings another partnership-the energy partnership led by Austria and Germany.
She said that the use of private sector development was crucial and that development cooperation could lay the foundation for the development of large projects.
Through the global forum on sustainable energy, development cooperation has also promoted many
Stakeholder exchange
If progress is to be made in energy for sustainable development, both developed and developing countries must change. Mr.
BANURI said it would be useful to see the world as a country of six people. There are 5 billion people.
The development agenda was not completed and the population lived without meeting the basic needs.
He found inspiration in the 1987 Southern committee report and in the Brundtland Committee, which combined the environment and development agenda.
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
Before development began, national inequality continued to expand.
Global inequality is decreasing today, thanks in part to growth in China and India.
Energy is at the heart of all these growth, as it has brought about tremendous changes in the global economy.
When discussing the link between human development and energy, he said, more energy did not improve the human development index.
The cost of modern energy is too high.
Energy spending is inversely proportional to income, with an average of 10 cents per dollar spent on energy.
Because the energy cost is too high, the energy is too expensive.
The average consumption of consumers is higher than that of enterprises.
The world must develop a global strategy to enable developing countries to \"leapfrog\" to more modern energy development.
Verle vandeveerd, director of the Energy and Environment Group of the United Nations Development Programme, said that developing countries must have more access to modern energy and that the international community should help them transition to a clean energy system.
Four actions need to be taken, the first being an agreement on ambitious greenhouse gas emission targets in Copenhagen.
Second, development
Governments should set national energy access targets such as 1.
Modern energy is not available to 6 billion people; 2.
5 billion depends on traditional biomass.
Thirdly, in Copenhagen, countries must agree on the appropriate mechanisms for technology transfer.
For accelerating the use of renewable technologies, it will be crucial for developing countries to obtain sustainable options.
So capacity-
Building support can help them develop policies to improve their energy supply.
She added that, in cooperation with UNIDO and UNEP, UNDP was establishing a capacity development mechanism to address such challenges in poor countries.
Together with the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNDP has launched a Technical Needs Assessment Manual.
In the ensuing discussion, the representative of member states expressed the hope that one day new and existing renewable energy technologies would be placed in the public domain.
In this effort, it is important for government support for research and development, as well as demonstration of emerging clean energy technologies.
There is also a need to strengthen international cooperation to maximize the benefits of such technologies.
The representative of Australia noted that the Australian government had announced a package of $4.
Among other things, solar energy research and clean coal technology account for 5 billion.
The representative of New Zealand said that the business environment was equally important.
In her country, hydro, geothermal and wind technologies are well established.
Investment in large enterprises
Scale renewable energy is carried out by the company on a commercial basis, which means the cost of energy-
Compete with fossil fuels.
A reasonable chance of success is needed before investing.
The representative of Senegal said that many countries, including himself, felt excluded from the proposed solution.
Problems in Sub
Access to renewable energy technologies was not available to sub-Saharan African countries, mainly due to cost issues, and UNDP and the World Bank had to fund projects at the country level, especially in East Africa.
The representative of Saudi Arabia pointed out that all forecasts showed that energy demand would increase by 40 to 50 percentage points over the next 50 years, with fossil fuels accounting for about.
Calls for reform of renewable energy sent the wrong signal to markets and energy producers.
What do many people say when they preach responsibility for future generations, when the world does not meet their energy needs?
States are responsible for these countries.
The current shortage of energy supplies is 6 billion.
Other speakers from India, Iran, Ecuador, Thailand (
Association for the South-
East Asian countries (ASEAN))
Argentina, Georgia, Nigeria, Libya, Chile, Egypt and the dominican Republic.
A representative of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)also spoke.
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