The Artful Ambassador
It\'s not the kind of night that makes social news, it\'s the kind of night that might affect Middle East politics in the next few years.
Outside the magnificent brick house, the security guards stood guard inside, with friendly atmosphere and frank conversation.
There are about a dozen guests, many of whom are famous Jews or relatives. Israeli Leader
Their host was Ambassador hamar Hamdoon from Baghdad, an influential Arab.
The evening is to commemorate the delegates.
Stephen Solarz (D-N. Y. )
There are blue and white carpets around the restaurant, Blue and White Louis XV-
The chair in style and the blue and white curtains are Peter Rodman, chairman of the Policy Planning Committee of the State Council;
Howard Tekel, director of national security council affairs for the Near East and South Asia;
Deputy Assistant Defense Minister for the Near East and South Asia, Robert pelatau; Alfred H.
Moses, lawyer, former Jewish community liaison of the Carter Government;
Editor of the Middle East policy survey;
Don oberdolfer of The Washington Post;
David Ignatius of The Wall Street Journal
Middle East expert at American Enterprise Research Institute Judith Kepp.
\"It was an amazing night, very interesting discussion and everyone was very relaxed,\" one guest said . \".
\"This is Steve Solarz, a Jewish congressman from New York, who supports
The Israelis around him talked to an Arab from Iraq.
\"It is quite brave for the ambassador to have a group like this, and some of them are very friendly to Iraq,\" said another guest . \".
According to Robert McC, dinner is a typical group in hamdonne that mixes Jews, Christians, Muslims, members of Congress, journalists and businessmen.
Adams, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and expert on Iraq, said, \"people like to imagine what will happen in Washington, but it is not often discovered.
\"Until two years ago, hamdonne\'s dinner was impossible.
Until last year, there were no Iraqi ambassadors in Washington and no US ambassador to Baghdad since 1966.
Over the past six years, Iraq has been led by President Saddam Hussein and seen by many in the United States as an illegal country: Allies of brutal, radical, Arab extremist leaders, enemies of Israel, against the invaders of neighboring countries, supporters of Palestinian terrorist organizations and arms customers of the Soviet Union.
In turn, Baghdad sees the United States as a protector of Israel;
Due to the lack of a Palestinian home, the Arab was defeated in 1967 wars with Israel, a separate peace with Egypt, settlements in the West Bank, to invade Lebanon and tilt toward Iran in the war with Iraq.
A lot of propaganda against the United StatesS.
\"17 years is the worst year in the Middle East,\" said James.
Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Near East and South Asia.
But Iraq is fighting Iran for survival by 1983, and the Baghdad regime wants Washington to put pressure on the United States. S.
From allies selling weapons to Tehran.
After a long team
Hussein picked a senior diplomat here.
Level officials sent to Washington.
Nizar Hamdoon arrived in the United States on November, two years ago. His mission was to warm and cold America. S. -
He will turn the enemy into a customer of Iraq\'s vast supply of oil, convincing Americans to sell agriculture and high-priced oil.
Long term technical products
Rid the country\'s top leaders of strong support for Israel.
\"1980 Iraqis are in the garage,\" says Christine Holmes, an Iraqi expert at the Brookings Institution . \".
\"The word Iraq is annoying.
If you work in Iraq or say something good about Iraq, it will label you as a madman.
But now the people who say this have reached 180 degrees.
\"Washington seems to think that Iran is a strategic country and that it may become an ally again if Ayatollah Khomeini is ousted.
When hamdonne arrived in Washington, fear of Islamic fundamentalism was sweeping the Middle East and the West.
Hamdoon made the most of this uneasiness.
\"He has this map and he is distributing it around the town,\" Moses said . \".
It was said to have been taken from an Iranian soldier.
It shows Iranian troops crossing Iraq, Jordan and Israel. -
Jerusalem is the target.
\"The political operation of Iraq is basically a mystery.
The country was ruled by the Fuxing party, which was born in a conspiracy and bred in ruthlessness.
It is a secret system that excludes most Iraqis and conceals information from its own members.
Its structure is based on cells, secret groups unknown to each other, and undisclosed informants.
Socialism and anti-communism;
It is conducive to the unity of all Arab states and the elimination of the state of Israel.
Its leader, 48-year-
In 1979, old Hussain came to power through a series of bloody plots in his own party.
Hamdonne is an elite member of the Fuxing party, known as the National Command.
He is clinically good at analysis, intellectually curious, quickly adapted, and eager to reach out to his most powerful opponent.
At the age of 41, he was short and slim, with a pair of round dark eyes, black curly hair and curly hair.
He is the son of an Iraqi general and an enthusiastic student in the United States.
In less than two years, he has made a breakthrough within Washington\'s reach.
At first, he was very embarrassed and dressed badly, and his English was almost unintelligible.
\"When he first came, he was obviously a very friendly but a little uncomfortable person. at-
\"The young Iraqi is certainly not familiar with the details of diplomacy,\" said Mr Kemp . \" He was the senior director of the National Security Council for the Near East and South Asia affairs.
\"But he became one of Washington\'s best diplomats in Middle East affairs very readily.
\"This is a challenge,\" hamdonn said . \"
\"Not only for me, but also for the government.
It\'s not easy for an Iraqi representative to work here for 17 years, not only it doesn\'t matter, but the image is very bad.
\"Not only has the image changed, but the reality has changed rapidly.
Hamdonne\'s English was once choppy, with a sharp accent and is now fluent enough to interview him on Internet TV.
Twenty years ago, when he was in high school at an American Jesuit in Baghdad, his English became better, which frustrated him.
He says that he speaks English \"enough to communicate, but sometimes it is not enough to be accurate or eloquent.
\"The wardrobe of his earlier white suit, dark shirt and white tie has been double by navy or gray
Buy the most breasted suits, silk ties and pocket scarves in France.
In more detail, he has learned who to speak to and when to speak.
At first, he tried to engage with officials of the Reagan administration.
They told him they supported him, he said, but he needed to \"work with some Democrats\" to get their support.
He contacted Odeh Aburdene, head of Arab Bank of New York limited, Kipper of AEI and Helms of Brookings to help him make friends in Congress, media and academia.
Influential voices are invited to small, quiet meetings, lunch at Blanche\'s house, and intimate but serious dinners.
\"The way I look at things in Washington is that you don\'t need to be a diplomat,\" hamdonne said . \"
Smoke marl Road in his spacious Woods.
Paneled office on the Massachusetts Avenue
The rooms are beautifully decorated: Luxurious Beige chairs sit on brightly colored oriental carpets;
A crystal chandelier hangs on it.
\"I think it\'s better to be yourself.
It\'s better to exit the diplomatic strategy.
It is best to open directly. . .
You usually lose whenever they think you\'re manipulating.
This is the problem with many Arab policies in Washington. . .
What are they saying here, something else at home.
His attitude was relaxed and calm.
\"On the positive side, you can say he\'s cool,\" said a State Department official . \".
\"On the negative side, you can think of it as computing.
\"He\'s always quick, but he doesn\'t show impatience when the interview time is over the scheduled time.
He works late at night and on weekends.
He likes to watch science fiction movies every once in a while.
He watched TV shows like \"Cagney and Lacey.
\"He likes to see the police on TV\" to control troubled cities and control gangs.
\"He hardly ever laughs, and when he laughs, it\'s not a joke:\" Some parts of life make me laugh: Ironically, some people feel they can control everything.
He seldom laughs.
\"When I saw him smile, I said, \'God, look, he\'s smiling, \'said the Iraqi press adviser. \'.
He is very blunt.
\"He always gives me direct, if not satisfactory answers,\" said Michael Nemanja, director of adult Jewish education at B \'nai B \'rith.
\"He never gave me the answer to the puppy, no gobbledygook.
Even his opponents find him charming.
Shireen Hunter said: \"Although we have a lot of differences, I always find him personable and smart. I emphasize that he is very personable . \" Deputy director of the Middle East program at Georgetown University Center for Strategic and International Studies.
He is quick-headed and good at exploring.
\"I think pragmatism,\" says Aburdene . \".
\"I think he\'s like a sponge.
He absorbs and listens.
His party did not show off.
The guests tasted his favorite Scotch whisky, Johnny Walker Black and wine;
Lamb chops and hummus are provided by the waiter.
The menu may not be much different from many Middle Eastern embassy dinners, but the guests and the conversation are different.
Joyce Starr, director of the Near East program at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, said, \"I was invited to a small dinner to commemorate (
Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq)Aziz.
I was really surprised. . .
Dinner and questions are directed by hamdonne.
You go to dinner, usually nonsense.
He turned this into material.
If you are tired when you arrive, you are really tired when you leave.
\"He is trying to unveil Iraq and encourage policy makers and business leaders to visit it.
\"There is no such thing as an open society,\" said one person familiar with the matter . \"
The Baghdad government often pays at least half of its travel expenses.
\"I think everyone in Washington has been to Iraq now,\" Hunt said . \".
At a dinner in honor of an Iraqi archaeologist, several major museum directors gathered at a remote home of an Iraqi-born American, Samira McAllee.
The big house is full of antique furniture.
Works of Morris Louis, Helen frankler and Jules oriski, ancient works of art and contemporary painting.
This is the atmosphere hamdonne likes;
He studied architecture at Baghdad University.
Before coming to Washington, hamdonne was responsible for the cultural activities in Iraq, including archaeology.
\"He is very popular among archaeologists and artists,\" said VIP Benan Abu SOV.
He recalled the two days they spent together in Mosul, when the temperature was 122 degrees and they were visiting the ruins of the ancient palace.
It was not until later in the afternoon that hamdonne put down his desire to drink water or eat.
Soof, a once-hot archaeologist, said: \"I can\'t stand it. . .
I am worried that he will suffer heatstroke. . .
I admire his resistance.
\"Sahar Hamdoon sat quietly as guests gathered in groups at the party.
Her English is very poor. she does not dare to use English.
She is 29 years old, wearing a black dress and a black beret with diamond jewelry.
Her cheeks beat heavily and her eyes were covered by Cole.
When she was still in high school, she met Nizar, who came to Mosul to visit her family.
They are cousins.
\"I sit in the basement to study,\" she later said, partly in crappy English and partly with the help of a translator friend.
\"My mother told me to come up and say hello, but I was wearing a robe. I couldn\'t tell her.
She persisted so I came up for a few minutes.
The next day hamdonne came back for lunch and her mother prepared a special meal of rice and meat with lemon sauce.
He left after an hour or two.
A week later hamdonne called Sahar\'s father and asked for permission to marry her.
A year later, they got married after she graduated from high school.
She gave birth to a daughter last year, urah.
Hamdonne says he wants his daughter to be an architect.
A reporter with him said, \"he is willing to talk about his daughter, which means to me that he is an unusual person because in the Arab world, you talk about your son.
Sahar says her husband rarely talks to her and he rarely shows emotions.
\"When his father died last year, you could look at his face and see that he was in pain.
He looked sad and tired, but he didn\'t talk or cry.
\"He never talks to me about his work,\" she said . \"
\"He was working at home.
He works in the library until 1, 2, 3 in the morning, Saturday and Sunday.
He is here just like he is in Iraq.
\"Samir vincent, an American businessman who grew up in Iraq and now travels there a lot, said Hamdoon\'s role in the Iraqi Ministry of Information was unclear.
\"I think this is the name of everything.
You have full authority. . .
He came from an authoritative position.
He\'s not just an ambassador.
Earlier, hamdonn was the party director in charge of Syria.
Syria has repeatedly planned to overthrow the Iraqi Revival Party, including the assassination of Hussein.
In response, the execution of 33 Fuxing parties was a lesson for others who might have the same idea.
\"This is a party. . .
\"I have been filming myself, my own people in the past,\" says Tom McNorton, a Middle East expert at the Brookings Institution.
Hamdonne recalled the party\'s activities when the government was run by the army when he was young, supported by the Communist Party: \"You were defeated.
You could be imprisoned.
You can even be executed.
\"In his college days, there were some underground meetings when he led the Iraqi student federation.
Even after the revival party came to power, there were constant assassination plots, attempted coups and internal power struggles.
Hamdonn described Iraq as a moderate country, which has matured in the course of the war.
This picture is far from what many in the US State Department know of Iraq as the leader of the rejection front, which is often aligned with Syria, Libya and South Yemen.
A State Department official said it was a \"very destructive force in the region \".
This is a shelter for terrorists, including Palestinian extremist groups, and a hideout for the notorious Abu Nidal, who specializes in blowing up aircraft.
\"It\'s not a very good person,\" Presek said . \".
Recently, Palestinian terrorist Mohammed Abbas traveled on an Iraqi diplomatic passport, allegedly the mastermind of the hijacking of the Italian cruise ship, aquir raero.
Hamdonn said that if Abbas is now accused of extradition by Italians, he has been hiding in Iraq \"where he is popular \".
For years, Iraq has posed a threat to neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
On 1979, after Anwar Sadat visited Jerusalem and signed the Camp David agreement, Iraq convened allies to attend the Baghdad summit and expelled Egypt from the Arab League.
When Iraq turned to Iran, the war broke out and the result was costly.
\"Their reserves have been reduced from $30 billion to $1 billion, and their external debt has risen to $55 billion,\" said Riad Ajami . \" Wharton professor of economics, author of a congressional report on Iraqi technology.
Oil revenues from 2 million barrels per day fell by 19706. 5 million barrels per day in the early days of the war, with reports of its current final accounts.
Hamdonne says there are 6 million barrels a day.
Iraq hopes to build new pipeline through Saudi Arabia and strengthen pipeline through Turkey.
By 1987, 2 million barrels per day.
\"We want to sell our oil to the United States,\" hamdonn said . \".
\"This is a good market for us.
\"During the war, Iranian soldiers seemed to flood the Iraqi border endlessly, and Hussain\'s army apparently began using chemical weapons.
Iraqis have denied the use of such weapons.
Hamdonne said the allegations were an excuse for Mr homini not to win.
\"There is no doubt about this (chemical)
A State Department official said.
\"We believe through the foundation of the Iranians that they have apparently been poisoned and sent to Europe for treatment.
\"On Last April, Newsweek magazine reported that a group of United Nations investigators found traces of the deadly nerve gas tower on the battlefield.
As Iraqis bought weapons from the Soviet Union, the United States did not protest the arms provided to Iran by its allies.
But with hamdonne\'s help, the position has changed.
\"We seem to announce every once in a while that some national systems in a region are dominant,\" Ajami said . \".
We announced the Iraqis.
The French began selling weapons to Baghdad and other American countries. S.
The Allies stopped supplying weapons to Tehran.
Although the goods continued to flow and some restaurants and nightclubs in Baghdad were open almost 24 hours a day, the war had exhausted Iraqis.
\"We can never relax,\" hamdonne said . \"
\"We never know when there will be an attack from the north, an attack from the south.
\"It is Iraq\'s decision to resume full diplomatic relations, but the United States has made demands on Iraq.
Hussein said at a meeting with Solarz on 1982 that Israel has legitimate security concerns that should be taken into account in any settlement between Israelis and Palestinians.
At the same time, Iraq expelled the terrorist Abu Nidal.
Some Iraqi observers doubt whether these changes are only temporary in the face of war with Iran.
\"We have evolved,\" hamdonne said . \"
\"We think there are some militants in the Arab world who are extremists. . .
But you always see Iraq, see Jordan, see Egypt, see Saudi Arabia, and even Israel.
If you look at it from a decades perspective, you will see some changes. . .
This is not because of war.
As for Iraq\'s position on Israel: \"We have not yet seen any positive side of the Arab states --
\"Israel\'s peace initiative . \"
\"They just said they wouldn\'t block the road.
Well, it\'s easy to get out of the way.
The question is, will you help?
\"The experience we got from the \'70\' era is that whenever the Arabs try. . .
\"For the sake of interference, they damaged it and caused a lot of damage,\" hamdonne said . \".
\"So it would be better to leave it to fewer countries directly bordering Israel.
That means Syria, Jordan, Egypt and Palestine. . .
It is up to them to decide.
We support them as our brothers, so we will not discuss the details with them.
\"Hamdoon supports the idea of terrorist attacks in the\" occupied territories of the West Bank \"and\" military targets \"within Israel. . .
I disagree with targeting civilians.
When asked about Israel\'s right to exist, he shook his head: \"We will not say that until we see the security of our Palestinian people and they have their own rights.
Determine the right. . .
This is a qualified number.
\"One should never forget that although he was a great ambassador, the Iraqis were armed by the Soviet Union and strongly opposed
After a long period of little trade with Iraq, the United States is now doing business with Iraq.
Over the past three years, Iraq has bought $1.
Value 5 billion-on credit --
American agricultural and commercial products.
The total this year alone will reach the dollar.
Hamdonn says Iraq wants to buy high
Technical equipment for Petroleum
Basic industries, agricultural industries, communications development and health care.
The land of meisodon and Babylon in the Bible, and the rivers of degeris and the early fauram flowing there, where the civilized man was born, and the three major religions were the ancestors of Abraham,
\"I call Iraq a sleeping giant,\" Aberdeen said . \"
Their oil reserves are second only to Saudi Arabia.
Their agriculture is very strong. . .
Their population is working hard.
Hunter wondered if the promise would be fulfilled.
\"Many businessmen are now seeing the economic downturn in the Gulf.
They want Iraq to become a new El Dorado. . .
I don\'t think Iraq will be another Saudi Arabia, both economically and politically.
\"The French who sell weapons to Iraq will want to collect them,\" she said . \".
\"Part of the collection is selling them things.
It is not El Dorado.
They will not fill the pockets of America.
At the same time, Iraqis have fallen deeper in the quicksand of the war.
The deputy prime minister of Iraq, the second most powerful figure, Taha Yassin Ramadan, told Joyce Starr of the Center for Strategic and International Studies that he had designed two economic plans, e based on the war that ended two years later, another based on its endless, \"like a hundred years war.
\"Our economy is better than it has been in the past five years,\" hamdonn said . \"
\"When you are rich, you seek stability.
You can\'t make money, you can\'t build your country, you\'re still looking for terrorism and unrest. . .
Iraq wants to see itself playing a better and greater role for the stability of the region.
But it will be difficult as the war continues.
Businessman Samir Vincent said: \"In Iraq, they will not say \'Inshallah \'(If God wants).
They said, \"shut down\"-
It will be done. . .
For good or bad, they are the ones who say what they do.