I \'ve been building the circuit for a long time and may have found some ideas that might be new to the nearest builder. There is nothing particularly difficult or surprising about these tips, but they help me and may help you as well. Tips are not e-items in my opinion ( But occasionally a mini may need to be assembled. project ) Or complete instructions on \"how to weld. Tips are more of a trick in technology or methods. All of the following should conform to this definition. When you\'re building, especially prototyping, you tend to have a lot of parts that usually look similar. Put them down and who knows what value they have. Good old Sisk (RIP ) There is a good solution to insert leads into the corrugated board and identify the parts by writing on the board. Otherwise, the next 1000 words I might write will have pictures. You can get various calculators and so on for decoding resistance color codes and values. I said throw them out. Even if you know the code, it\'s easy to misunderstand the color, and as with most 1% resistors, many don\'t use the color code. Instead, it\'s easy to measure them. Do not set the resistance of 1 m before using and quickly check each part. Even if you have pre- Resistance sorting, easy to miss-sort. The device in the picture is helpful. You may want to build one of them and put it on the bench as you build it: the third hand that russ_hensel has prepared for your multimeter, and the same goes for the small hat: Use a capacitor meter. The Banana plug looks a bit like a very small metal banana. They are very useful when they insert a lot of things. Especially banana jacks (see picture ). But you should also know that they are the same as many other things. Most binding posts have a Jack built in. (see picture ). My favorite banana plugs are called stackable banana plugs, and they have a jack on the back where you can plug them into each other and stack them up to see the picture. Pomona made them, not sure what the best source is, but here are a few links: The Banana plug is also suitable for other things, a very handy thing is a standard crocodile clip (see picture ) It is usually better to use crocodile clips if they wear boots. If the Banana plug is not suitable, maybe you should adjust it, the picture shows how to add some pipes and banana jacks to the test probe to make the probe Jackable. Banana plug adapter is not the only thing you can do. For example: Make a jack for a 1-meter probe. Mine was made of a bare wire, wrapped up to install the probe and welded to the clip. I need to put a little tape on the last boot. (see pictures ) One of the very odd adapters I made for the RS232 cable is: the Tea connector for the russ_hensel series RS232 cable in fact, the adapter is an early theme for me on the instructures: sometimes, it may even be useful to buy an adapter (see pictures ). If you are using a component, look for its data table on the web ( Use part number and keyword \"data table \") It will not only give you the parameters of the part, it will also give you the pin output, usually it will also give you the circuit that is useful. Also use the keyword \"apply notes \"( Sometimes \"apply Notes \") It may or may not exist for you. They usually load useful circuits. Oh, \"rtfm\": read it. When prototyping, it\'s good to know what the pins are on the IC. You can get the pinout picture from the data table ( For example 555 from) Usually top view. If you work on the perf board, you really need a bottom view. To do this, just use the image editor ( I use the Paint Shop pro) To take photos. These images can then be added to the document ( I use open office) Has top and bottom views or parts. You can annotate the document as needed. Print it out and hang it in your prototype area while you\'re working. I have several such swing-arm table lamps in the lab. Since my workbench is just a piece of plywood with some reinforcement on the edges, I made a lot of extra brackets for the lights by drilling the right size holes on the edges. Now I can easily move the lights to the best position. ( What\'s interesting is how many swing arm lights to see :) As the parts are getting smaller and the eyes are getting older, the head-mounted magnifying glass is becoming more and more useful. This cheap port freight is very effective for me. I like this more than the magnifying glass in my hand, or even on the adjustable arm. ( One of my favorites not sure if this works, but \"looks great\" and finally I think HF used to carry :) It\'s not really electronic, but you often need to assemble your project. Sometimes this includes starting a nut in a place that is hard to get. Heatkit has a solution, a nut starter. Basically, this is a bar with a groove, just right for the nut. The grooves should be a little elastic, plastic, rubber. . . . You put the nut into the groove, and then you can reach out to enter and start the nut. It is not difficult to make, there are different nuts of each size. You can even buy it. . UrG-- The coin envelope is a small paper envelope. Use them on small parts. Why? Because they are cheap, a few cents a dollar, you can write on them, and they are stiff and can be lined up in the drawer of the box. View them in the picture. Available in various sizes. Buy them in stores such as Office Max or in stores such as Amazon, and maybe the wires that will move or be pulled after construction should have strain relief. This means that the wire will not pull its electrical collection. There are many ways to do this, eye-catching, clips, hot glue. On the wear board you can weave the wires through and extra holes. Wires of different colors are used when wiring. This makes it easier to track lines. The wires recovered from cat 5 cables provide 8 different colors. It can be striped by pulling solid color lines with felt tip marks. For Power, red plus power, black or green grounding, negative power is (for me )blue. When you buy connectors, jacks, jumpers. . . . . Think about the colors and buy as many different colors as possible. The Pomona stackable banana plug I recommended above used to have a dozen different colors and now it seems hard to find. The ribbon cable has multiple colors and it is convenient to peel off what you need and sometimes you can get multiple conductors in one unit. If you need more colors to bind the paint of the plastic model ( It cost me 15 cents when I first bought it)can be useful. You can use color tape for fatter cables (like: or ) Add a color ribbon at each end of the cable to create a variant: for example, gray with a red ribbon. The test point is the place where the circuit is easy to connect and support the interested signal of the debugging circuit. The output of the amplifier level may be a good place for the test point, small wire loop, and then, just welded to make the end of the test point\'s part or part can be used as a connection point. Make them as small as possible, but big enough for your smallest grab. When the circuit works, to remove the test point unless it is out of the way, flush the test point with the circuit board. It\'s hard to debug a messy breadboard. You got the wire wrong and it was difficult to track the lead. If they are just right in length, embrace the motherboard, they are easy to see and do not have obstacles on the test leads, etc. It may be a bit painful, but it will pay off soon. Used with color coding. This also applies to circuits built more permanently. Unfortunately, it\'s easy to find terrible examples of breadboard wiring on instructures --- You clean up your behavior. Take pictures of the circuit that is debugged or repaired. This is especially useful if you are trying to draw a schematic diagram of a circuit that is not recorded. Take it from both sides. By mirroring, you can view the bottom as you look at the picture showing the position of the top part. You smart people (not me ) Might figure out how to make a different color on both sides and overlay to get an X-ray like view. Let me know if you understand. Adjust some strips with nuts and bolts, especially cheap ones. It is usually a pain to do it correctly. When you fit them exactly to the wire size you usually use, set them up tight, label them and don\'t change them. Need another size These are cheap guys. Most of us usually use a small set of wire sizes, so we only need a few pairs. When you push the wire or Assembly lead into the breadboard, it usually doesn\'t want to enter, so the lead will crash. Develop the habit of inserting with a needle and nose clamp. Grab the lead far enough from the end, insert all the way, and press. The effect is better. Of course, there are many other uses for pliers. The port freight price is reasonable. Use wall cover ( Small pieces that plug directly into the wall and provide power). Why? Others have built most or all of the power supply and you will be safer without any line voltage in your project. The \"usb\" power supply is cheap and ubiquitous for 5 V. A usb hub with a bunch of ports and external power supplies will give you power to multiple projects at a time. ( By the way, the idea of a \"usb\" project like a fan and LEDs and plugging it into a computer is a bit silly, usb is a universal serial bus, these projects just use power lines, there is no continuous. It\'s usually not a good idea to use a $500 computer as a power supply. /rant ) Be careful to check the ripple and regulation of the power supply, many of which are very poor. Consider adding a regulator (next tip ). The three terminal regulators are very simple to use. LM7805 and similar parts are typical. They are usually \"short-circuit-proof\", using the number of low components, there are many voltages ( Or easy to adjust)and cheap. Many instructable are basically released using the correct circuit, which is the data table. Adding to the back end of the wall rail will make a poorly regulated Wall rail perform well at a slightly lower voltage than the wall rail name plate. Use batteries. If you need to unplug If you connect your project electricity to a person or animal, then it should be powered by a battery. This will save a life. This also works for computers, do not insert and connect to creatures. On instructures, you\'ll see a lot of projects that aren\'t like this in many cases. This is partly because cases can be expensive, difficult to find, and cumbersome to implement. But a good project is worth mentioning, almost mandatory if the voltage is high. The useful feature of the case is that the material is easy to work ( Think of wood, aluminum) Thin enough, so the pots switche, binding posts, etc are installed well. If you use an aluminum or plastic panel, an almost unfriendly shell, such as steel, may be OK. I used the old tea pot ( See the Tea connector for the serial RS232 cable of russ_hensel) Metal biscuit box, plastic file care box, and even plastic can. Altoid cans are popular in smaller cases ( Like the classic minty boost. ). Always consider saving this case if you salvage some equipment. There are tools that are useful for case work. What should you know, drill, File, Gnasher, reams, step drill and chassis punch. Then you can decide which one to use. Perfect for prototyping, not very good for permanent items as there is a tendency for parts and wires to fall off. You can recreate it with a custom printed circuit board or use point-to-point cabling. 1 inch perf board (link ). There are even pre-printed circuit boards (like: ) This almost mimics the prototype plate, but where do you weld the assembly. For tips on using a breadboard, see my instructions: electronic breadboard comprehensive guide: Meta instructions for russ_hensel if you supply a circuit from a power supply or similar, it can be easy to connect the power back. This can create magical smoke in your area. If so, place a diode in the power supply line to block the reverse voltage. But it shouldn\'t kill you. Things under 30 volts are safe. Help with dry hands and care. If you are grounded for ESD issues then it is not a good idea to ground yourself. The impact on the chest is very dangerous because that\'s where most of us have the heart. Put one hand in your pocket and your chest won\'t get an electric shock. If you work on a project, sometimes you end up designing something that looks a little complicated. Two examples: a high-side driver or a high-side current sensor. Both can be done without major trouble, and maybe the parts you have on hand. But it is also important to consider the use of integrated circuits to accomplish this task. Both have fairly cheap and simple IC and you can buy it directly. Find data tables and any application instructions. Old equipment that is not used for a long time may fail and this can be very serious if the old electrolytic cap is hit. Some people just suggest that you open the device, tear off the cap and replace it. Sometimes they can be saved with the correct startup program. The basic idea is that in the electrolytic cap, dialectical is formed by the interaction of chemicals in the cap with the field of application. Dialectics disappears over time, but can be reconstructed by gradually applying voltage. Google reforms the electrolytic medium. The methods to do this vary, and the easiest way is to insert the device into a variable and slowly increase the voltage. It is very useful to cover 1 m. From a control point of view, the ideal way is to disconnect the v connection on the cap. Then connect the external power supply ( Maybe through a high value resistor) And measure the current and voltage of the lid. Turn the voltage up slowly Pay attention to the current, it should be a very low value. Continue to increase the voltage until you reach the working voltage of the part and you are done. Both you and the hat are done and its current stays at a high level. The process can take 5 minutes to 1 hour.