\"Brilliant\": Prepare for the fluorescent future
Watt incandescent lamp-
The same bulbs are plugged into many of our tables and bedside lamps, sending out warm yellow light, which we are connected with the comfortable indoor space and the warm American family ---
Will no longer be sold in the United States.
This change is part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which aims to reduce our unnecessary energy spending (40-
Watt bulbs will be phased out by 2014 ).
That means consumers will have to start looking for new ways to brighten their homes and offices in two years ---
Most likely, compact fluorescent lamps are more energy efficient
Efficient bulbs that usually emit cooler and bluer light.
But, as Jane Brokes explains in her delightful new book, Glory: The evolution of artificial light, our feelings of different forms of light tend to be related to more complex social problems
Over the past few centuries, they have evolved dramatically as we move from whale oil lamps (which has led to a reduction in the number of whales in the world) gas lighting (which helps to create the presence of modern cities) and finally electric lights.
The book is made of light depicting the social and economic impact of each revolution, and explains that they have not only changed the way we live in cities and families, but also our bodies.
Sharon spoke to Brox over the phone at his home in Maine about our hatred of fluorescent lights, the extraordinary potential of organic LEDs and why a well
The bright streets are not necessarily safer than the dark ones.
Many of us work under fluorescent lamps every day and hate it;
I am now sitting under the fluorescent lamp that I despise.
Why are we troubled by the flash of fluorescent light? it buzzes;
It\'s not constant.
Some people have medical problems with fluorescent lights.
I think the way incandescent lamps are accepted will never be accepted.
But many of our resistance to compact fluorescent lights comes from the history of the light itself.
Incandescent lamps are the lights of the 20 th century.
It is the light that brings us into the modern world and has an inseparable connection with all our modern appliances and modern homes.
This is also the light of the city, especially in the United States.
In 1920, when incandescent lamps began to spread, the number of Americans living on farms for the first time was less than the number of people living in cities and suburbs.
Incandescent lamps are warm lights in life, while fluorescent lamps are completely different.
The fluorescent lamp was developed as early as 1939, and I think GE thought it would be a lamp for factories, workplaces, and public places, and it is still like that until now.
However, in 2012, when we started phasing out incandescent lamps, we were almost stuck with compact fluorescent lights.
We are at a time when it is difficult to know where the dominant light of the future will be.
I think compact fluorescent lamps are a temporary solution due to disposal issues-
Mercury is present in each compact fluorescent lamp and it is not a good idea to throw them into the trash can.
A wide variety of research and development is being carried out around halogen lamps and LEDs, but for 2012 or 2014, these research and development will not be in place in time.
All these lights are much colder than the color of incandescent lamps.
Do we have to get used to living in a less warm environment?
It looks relaxed.
Compact fluorescent lamps and LEDs have colder casting for them.
I hope our future will not be a cold blueish light.
But in terms of what is affordable and produced for everyone in the country, we have not arrived there yet.
It can be integrated onto a flat surface, for example, wrapped around the entire wall-
It sounds amazing.
OLED will change our relationship with light.
If your walls are illuminated, or the pillars in your house are illuminated, then at night the interior of your house looks like the day.
This will be a completely different interior than what we know now.
As the next evolution of light, this is a fascinating thing.
In this book, you don\'t think a brighter street is necessarily a safer Street.
Why is there a large study in Illinois that shows that the reduction in street lights reduces crime;
This also increases the number of crimes that occur during the day.
We automatically assume a well.
It\'s safer to have this basic assumption, but I\'m not sure if it\'s true.
Many cities thought that fixed oil lamps would hinder crime when they first installed them, but there are several cities, including Cologne and Birmingham in the UK, because they thought it would help and punish criminals, so refuse to turn off the street lights.
Absolute darkness is not safe, but absolute glory is not safe.
The more light we have, the more we feel we need to be safe.
As you wrote in the book, artificial light has also changed our biological clock ---
The way our bodies perceive time.
Because long after sunset, we can get light, so our bodies don\'t have time to enter the darkness at the end of the day.
Once you turn on the light at night, it resets your biological rhythm and can\'t get you to sleep.
A medieval historian found that the sleeping habits of the Middle Ages were very different. -
People sleep two nights.
They will go to bed early in the evening and sleep until 1 to 2 in the morning.
Then they will have a quiet waking time and go back to sleep.
The problem with contemporary society is that we are locked in the industrial clock, so you don\'t have the luxury of getting up in the middle of the night or the luxury of sleeping late in the morning.
Our society as a whole is against our biological rhythms, not just the light itself.
So light pollution is really hurting us.
It hurts us biologically, but I\'m also surprised to see how much it affects the natural world ---
Migration patterns like birds and nocturnal animals.
It affects their ability to hide and hunt, and actually changes the ecological balance between species.
But it also affects the way we see ourselves in this world, because very few of us have any understanding of the vastness of the night sky.
I feel like this is a huge loss, not only for astronomers, but for how we feel about ourselves in this world ---
Great and lost feeling.
To be honest, though, given all the other issues that the country is dealing with, it seems a hard sale to get people very interested in over-lighting when lighting costs are lacking in connection with the night sky.
I live on a small street in a medium town in Maine, and in the middle of the night I can cross my house without turning on the lights.
Due to the poor design of the public lighting system, we wasted too much light, and if we were to be more efficient in lighting design and lighting patterns throughout the city streets, we could actually save a lot of energy.
I really don\'t quite understand why this is not part of the energy conservation discussion, not the focus of replacing incandescent lamps.
In the past few decades, we have experienced several major power outages on the East Coast--
Including the infamous crime in New York.
In his 70 s, there was a power outage.
As we become more and more dependent on the grid, our response to the power outage tells us about the relationship with light, and the consequences of the power outage become more and more terrible.
We are used to light, so it seems to us that light is more natural than darkness, and we are less comfortable than our ancestors in darkness.
The century lights went out of power and people panicked, but I don\'t think it\'s close to what happened at the end of the 20 th century.
The day after the 1965 New York blackout, I liked the headlines of Italian newspapers: \"New York was canceled by darkness.
\"Light has been linked to the city and its vitality.
This is not necessarily the case in medieval cities. -
The Roman Empire had no street lights and Florence during the Renaissance had no street lights.
The word \"Nightlife\" was used only in the mid-19th century as the light made room for the middle and upper floors for the evening.
You wrote in the book that we need to completely transform our energy network.
Why it is so important that we cannot maintain the grid we have.
It\'s over capacity--
This is one of the reasons why there have been so many power outages in recent years ---
More than 50% of the fuel comes from coal.
There must be a state grid that can consider fluctuating energy from solar and wind energy, or a grid that is less concentrated;
Bill McKibben believes that a grid should consist of many local sources that are connected together.
But there is a lot of research and development that needs to go into the grid.
We are not there either.